Physical inactivity – Cardiovascular Risk Factor. We all know that training is needed for muscles in order to keep them in tone, to maintain their normal function and to prevent them from being weakened. The heart is nothing other than a group of constantly working muscles, which needs high loads for its training. So do the muscle cells of our blood vessels.
However, as a product of human evolution, the history of mankind has changed. If the ancestors of modern man in his daily life require constant energy and movement (for example: obtaining food, accommodation, travel, etc.); the modern man today does not require much energy and muscle strength to lead his everyday life.
Various studies show that the mortality rate due to ischemic heart diseases was significantly higher in the groups, which had been marked (using specific criteria) as having a sedentary life style. A prospective study of selected populations in England have also received evidence of a lower frequency of ischemic heart disease, especially acute fatal attacks, in middle-aged men whose work requires great physical activity – compared to those whose work is related to low mobility. Data obtained from the pathological studies confirm the hypothesis that habitual heavy physical work prevents the development of ischemic heart diseases.
Cardiovascular Risk Factor – Evidence base
The World Heart Federation reported that physical inactivity increases the risk of developing various heart diseases by 1.5 times. It also doubles the risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus type 2, significantly increases the risk of obesity, raises the chances of high blood pressure and is also linked to abnormal levels of fat in blood and blood clots.
If a person who has a sedentary life style, walk quickly for a distance of only 200-300 meters, he is most probably to experience palpitation, increase of pulse rate to 120-125 beat per minute, and the time of diastole will be significantly reduced. Due to the untrained neuro-vascular regulation of the heart, the collaterals arteries supplying the heart muscles, which are suppose to function when the physical load increases, could not function properly. As a result, hypoxia of the heart muscles occur, which then leads to total muscle fatigue and as a result – the inability to perform normally during physical activity. None of this will happen on the person with a mobile life style as the physical capacity is significantly higher.
Some recommendations by the World Health Federation as a prophylaxis of cardio-vascular diseases are.
- Children are advised to have at least 60 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day.
- Adults are advised to have minimum 30 minutes of moderate activity per day.
- The longer the exercises are, the greater the benefits.
- Moderate activities include: walking, bicycling, gardening and etc.
- Vigorous activities include: aerobic, running and etc.
Physical inactivity – Cardiovascular Risk Factor. There are various recommendations. People within the middle-aged range with high-risk of cardio-vascular diseases and leading a sedentary lifestyles should consult their physicians. It is a risk of damage to the musculus-skeletal system and cardiovascular complications if a complex of exercises are performed before prior assessment of their preparedness.
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