Rutherford B. Hayes Biography, Presidency, and Achievements

Rutherford Birchard Hayes, the 19th President of the United States, served from 1877 to 1881. Here’s a look at his biography, presidency, and key achievements:


  • Rutherford B. Hayes was born on October 4, 1822, in Delaware, Ohio. He attended Kenyon College and Harvard Law School, where he graduated in 1845.
  • Hayes practiced law in Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), Ohio, and eventually entered politics. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives and later as Governor of Ohio.

Presidential Election of 1876:

  • The presidential election of 1876 was highly contentious. Hayes, the Republican nominee, ran against Samuel J. Tilden, the Democrat. The election results were disputed, with both sides claiming victory in several states.
  • To resolve the dispute, a special electoral commission was established. The Compromise of 1877 was then negotiated, which gave Hayes the presidency in exchange for certain concessions to the South.

Presidential Achievements:

  • Hayes pursued several notable policies during his presidency, including civil service reform and efforts to promote civil rights.
  • Hayes signed the Resumption Act of 1875, which aimed to stabilize the U.S. currency by returning to the gold standard.
  • He also worked to improve the civil service system by implementing the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act in 1883, which established a merit-based system for government employment and helped reduce patronage in federal appointments.
  • Hayes advocated for civil rights and took steps to protect the rights of African Americans in the South. He supported the use of federal troops to enforce voting rights and ensure fair elections.

Post-Presidential Life:

  • After serving one term as President, Hayes kept a relatively low profile in politics. He retired to Spiegel Grove, his home in Fremont, Ohio.
  • He was involved in various philanthropic and educational endeavors, including supporting the construction of libraries, schools, and educational institutions.


  • Rutherford B. Hayes passed away on January 17, 1893, at his home in Fremont, Ohio.


  • Hayes is often regarded as a reformist president who worked to improve the civil service system and promote civil rights.
  • His presidency marked a transitional period in American politics as the country emerged from the Reconstruction era and faced ongoing challenges related to civil rights and the economy.
  • Hayes is remembered for his commitment to civil service reform and for working to protect the rights of African Americans in the South. His presidency’s disputed election and the Compromise of 1877 have also been subjects of historical study and debate.
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